Online Public Speaking

Training & Practice


How to Write a Great Presentation

We’re hopeful that at this point you’re feeling highly self motivated, you have a passionate subject in mind for your next speech, and you are aware of what your audience wants to hear – as well as what you want them to hear.

It’s time for one of the most important subjects when it comes to giving a presentation: Deciding what to say.

We should point out that it’s not that easy to just become a great speechwriter. In fact, a lot of effective speakers aren’t strong writers at all. Some who speak frequently in public even have speechwriters, including many world leaders like the President of the United States.

The good news is that while it may take some practice to craft moving speeches that can change the world, you can absolutely write effective presentations right away.

Also, as the old saying goes, it’s often not what you say, but how you say it. We’ll get to the how later.

To get you moving in the right direction we’ve created a step by step process that will make writing presentations as easy as possible. We’ve also developed a series of questions that will help you create your own material.

We’re also going to use a sample concept (look for the Example notes) and build a speech for illustrative purposes as we move forward.

Let’s get started!

 1) Pick the general topic of your presentation

Start with a broad concept that’s important to you that you’d like to share with other people, preferably something that you’re passionate about. Try to use a topic that you’re already well versed in so you can speak from experience.  This will help you relax and give you the opportunity to speak naturally about something in which you have expertise.

You should also choose something that you want to speak about. That may sound odd, but then again we all have things we’re passionate about and are well versed in but are not inclined to speak to others about!

Example topic: Soccer (which, by the way, we know little about at the moment, so this will test the process here!)

Choose your subject: _________________________________________

 

2) Clarifying your audience related goals

Next, define what you want your audience to gain from your presentation. Keep in mind what you want them to hear and what they want to hear.

Example: I want my audience to learn about the soccer World Cup in particular, and to understand what the World Cup means to me and the many other people who love soccer. I also want the audience to grow to love the sport of soccer like I do. I think the audience I will be speaking to in particular would like it because some of them already play other sports, and most of them like sports in general.

Choose your audience related goals:_____________________________

 

3) Select specific main points within the broad subject

Now, with those audience related goals in mind, define what your main points are within your broad topic. These should be very important to you.

Example topic:

Soccer is the biggest sport in the world since it is played and watched by more people than any other sport in the world.  The World Cup is only played once every four years, which makes it feel very special.  For many countries, the World Cup means everything stops when their team plays: businesses shut down, schools stop to watch or take the day off – the match is probably the most important thing happening for most people at that time!  It only takes a field and a ball to play soccer, unlike other sports that require expensive equipment.

Choose some specific information about your topic that will help you achieve your goals. List as many ideas and as much information as you’d like: ________________________________________

 

4) Think again

The next step is to take some time to think about the information you’ve gathered: your subject, what makes you passionate about it, and how it all comes together. When you’re about to share your views with others, you should ideally have a unique or “expert” perspective to share. It’s preferable not to speak about the same stuff everybody else already knows if at all possible.

If you’re an expert on the subject, you’ll want to gather your best insights. Whether you’re an expert or not, you’ll want to consider the subject carefully and see if there is anything you can find about the subject that really resonates with you, or if there is some unique perspective you might be able to expand on.

If you need inspiration, read about your subject. Search the internet for articles or facts, or grab a book. Spend a little time getting to know your subject even better. Gather the ideas about it that are most compelling and important.

Example: The more we think and learn about soccer, the more we realize it’s a phenomenal paradox: something that starts so simply – just a level open space to run around in and a single ball – is of monumental importance all around the world. Soccer has even become the “richest” sport in the world because it is the sport that has the most money involved, but it costs relatively little to play. The World Cup is the culmination of all of that love for the game, all of that effort, wrapped up in a single event to see who can play the simplest game the best. The patriotism people show for their countries during the World Cup and through the game of soccer is astounding. There’s something special in that too, which is again ironic considering the simple beginnings of a game. You could use computers to come up with a new, fantastic and complicated game, spend millions on equipment to play it, and it would never approach the popularity or importance of soccer. Soccer is also battle without bloodshed, two teams battling it out, and then often respecting one another in the end, demonstrated in traditions such as the sharing of jerseys between players.

List anything you can think of that really moves you. Write down your unique perspectives on the subject: ______________________________

 

Assembling your information into a presentation

Armed with your goals, your main points, and your unique perspectives, it’s time to write out what you want to say.

Before we go any further, it’s very important that we share the concepts of extemporaneous speaking and using humor.

Extemporaneous speaking

Extemporaneous means having the appearance of speaking from ideas and knowledge without a prepared speech.

In the old, old days, speeches were delivered in a very formal manner. The longer the words and the longer the speech, the better. These speeches were clearly pre-written and pre-rehearsed, if not read while being given. One of the most famous opening lines in speech history, from Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, was certainly not extemporaneous:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”

Fantastic stuff, but clearly prepared ahead of time, practiced and delivered from memory.

The trend in recent years has moved to a more extemporaneous style. Most professionals try to sound like what you might call casual experts. This is the case mostly for two reasons: 1) because people today don’t really want to be talked at, and 2) because if someone appears to be smart enough to give a well structured presentation on demand, that’s pretty impressive.

As you’re about to write a presentation, it’s best to keep extemporaneous speaking in mind. In a perfect world you might even write out the thoughts that you want to share, but not write all of the words, verbatim. Doing it this way would help to prevent your presentation from sounding too mechanical or rehearsed.

But while extemporaneous speaking is a goal, most of us need to build up to it, especially in the early stages, so we’ll work on that later on. For now it’s better to sound a little rehearsed than not knowing what to say.

The goal, therefore, is to write a presentation that sounds as natural and unrehearsed as possible, but will also give you a full repertoire of what to say.

Humor

Humor is highly important to public speaking not just because it is entertaining and engages the audience, but because it also defuses tension.

When someone walks to the front of a room, not only are they often a little anxious, but, believe it or not, the audience gets anxious too. Why? For the same reason we watch the nightly news. Really!  This will make sense in a minute.

To explain, ever notice how the news is mostly bad?  It’s set up to get you to want to watch by teasing you with one fact: it could happen to you.

When the news tells you what went wrong elsewhere, it rivets us because we know deep down that it could be us they’re talking about. Whether it’s a car crash, someone falling on the subway tracks, a school getting shut down due to the discovery of toxic mold, or any other appalling event that the nightly news isn’t shy about delivering, bad news sells. It’s a big part of why we watch it.

As the speaker walks to the front of the room, the audience is often subconsciously thinking that could be me. The audience can be just as tense as the speaker, sometimes even more!

Humor is a great way to relieve the tension for the audience and the speaker.

The classic example of this is a speaker saying one thing that is slightly funny in the beginning of a presentation and the audience bursting into laughter. Everyone smiles and relaxes. It breaks the tension.

Tension is really energy ready to be used on something – including a good laugh. Audiences are also subconsciously worried that the speaker will fail, since  that could be them up there, so when the speaker jokes it makes the audience feel that the speaker is actually ok and therefore everything is going to be ok.

Consider how much humor might work for you. The classic technique is to throw in a joke or two at the beginning of a presentation to relax the audience and break the ice. This is a great technique. In fact, not doing that can leave early tension hanging over the speaker and the audience the entire time.

Another technique is to use a joke or two during the presentation to keep the audience interested, but keep in mind the same nervous energy that makes almost anything seem funny early on may not be there. Don’t be surprised if you don’t get as much of a result. Also watch out for using too many attempted jokes. This can start to look cheesy or desperate.

With these things in mind, figure out where and when you’ll be using humor in your presentation. Things that strike you as funny may come to you during the process of actually writing your words. Consider them carefully, including whether the audience is likely to find them funny and whether they’re appropriate, and then decide where and when to include them in your presentation.

One more lesson from the nightly news: make it NOW

Another interesting technique that the news uses can help your presentation. Did you ever notice how they always say “There’s a fire burning right now” or “This just in” or “At this hour”?

It’s more interesting to the audience when something is happening at that moment. News that is two days old is never as riveting. Newscasters are trained to speak in the now to gain the fullest attention of their audience. You might want to try this technique also if you can.

Example: At this very moment, literally as we are in this room, the World Cup is being played in front of hundreds of thousands of people in stadiums across the world, and millions more are glued to their televisions. They’re screaming support for their country; perhaps someone even just scored a goal and the crowd is going wild.

 

5) The outline

Take a look at all the info you’ve gathered by now, including your unique perspectives on the subject. Now let’s figure out which way to sequence it by writing an outline.

To do this, you have to figure out what should come first, second, third, and so on up until the conclusion of your presentation.

Let’s use writing a paragraph to help. Do you remember how you were taught to write one? An introductory sentence that introduces the idea, supporting sentences in the middle of the paragraph that help support the main idea, and a concluding sentence that wraps up the paragraph.

Consider a presentation like a big paragraph, or a series of paragraphs. Since we’re outlining, start with your main idea.

Example: The most important, main idea about soccer is that it is the biggest sport in the world.

What is the biggest, broadest aspect to what you want to say in your opening paragraph? __________________________________________

 

Next, follow that initial idea with supporting information that backs up that idea.

Example: Many, many people play soccer. People play it all over the world - almost every country plays soccer.

Before you get to the next main point, start considering where and how you could link to future big concepts, especially those that are important to you, in the opening statements.

Example: (still in the opening “paragraph”) Soccer is enormous, yet it has such simple and humble beginnings.

Note any links you want to make to other big concepts related to your opening main idea: __________________

Continue this process, section by section. Write down subsequent main ideas, some information that will support those ideas, and note any links you want to make to upcoming ideas. By the way, we’re still just outlining for now, we’ll write shortly!

Main idea:_____________________

 

Supporting info:________________

 

Idea: _________________________

 

Repeat as necessary.

 

Finally, write out some ideas for how you think you might want to conclude your overall presentation (note that we’ll work on concluding each paragraph of your presentation when we write it). Keep in mind your most important audience related goal. The closing ideas will be what they hear you say last, so they’ll have a big impact on what the audience remembers.

Example: There are amazing things in the human world. The ascendancy of a simple game with a simple ball to something of such importance is one of them.

The ideas I want to conclude my speech with are: ______________________

 

Turning words into presentations

It’s almost time to actually write your presentation. If you followed the steps above you have a bunch of information to draw from, and an outline that should make it even easier.

Before we get started, let’s talk about turning a group of words into great writing with meaning.

Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is a terrific example. If he had notes or an outline, which he may well have, he might have written this:

Most important point: To remind people of the founding principles of our nation.

Then, his outline might have shown a first paragraph with this:

Introduction: Point out how old the country is and what the principles were that it was founded on.

To create the language in his actual speech, he might have written this sentence down first (although we’re using this for example only, Lincoln probably wrote the real thing on the first try!)

Some people started our new country 87 years ago on our land. The idea of it was for everybody to be treated the same and to be free.

Next, he might have studied that sentence and thought of a better way to write it. He would have studied each part of it and looked for ways to make the same idea sound better.

People: Fathers

Free: Liberty

Country: Nation

Idea: Proposition

87: Four score and seven

Started: Brought forth

Land: Continent

And so on. That sentence alone is extremely well written, which is largely why it’s part of one of the most famous speeches of all time. Look again at how it all came together:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”

By the way, please don’t feel pressure to come up with something no one will ever forget on your first try!

Let’s just use the same concept of finding better words, better nouns or adjectives, and sequencing them in a way that helps get our main point across as  effectively as possible. Note we said as “effectively” as possible, not “eloquently”, since getting up in a business meeting and speaking like Lincoln might not go over well.

Also, don’t forget to consider your audience when you decide how to say what you want to say and how you want to say it. If the time is right to be eloquent, or grandiloquent, such as for a poetry reading or a reading of your own fictional writing, then by all means, “elocute” away!

 

6) Time to write!

 

We recommend having your outline in front of you now, whether you typed it out on a computer or whether you wrote it out by hand.

 

On a new page, start with your first paragraph from the outline, and think about how to say what you want to say.

Before we go any further, we recommend that your first words for most presentations be to greet the audience, possibly introduce yourself, and thank the audience for their time and the opportunity to speak. If there’s anyone else you need to thank for the opportunity to speak, or to acknowledge in general, now’s also the time.

After that, just start writing the actual presentation. You might be a natural at this and already banging away on your keys. Or, you might be like many people who need some inspiration.

If you’re already writing, keep at it by section, and then go to #7 below where we’ll take a look at what you wrote and possibly tweak it.

If you need inspiration for what to write, read your notes, section by section. On your new sheet, re-write what you wrote in the notes in a story style. Imagine you’re telling a friend the story if it helps.

You can even start by writing very similar things to what you already have, but start adding to them with more descriptions and/or descriptive language.

Just write for now in any style that feels natural. Don’t worry about the tone, or whether it’s perfect. Just write.

Example:

From the outline: Many, many people play soccer. People play it all over the world - almost every country plays soccer. Soccer is enormous, yet it has such simple and humble beginnings.

Writing opening paragraph:

Soccer is a human phenomenon. Played by hundreds of millions, if not billions of people, this mere “game” has transcended economic and social boundaries, galvanized patriotism, crossed oceans, and is now played on almost every nation on Planet Earth. The sport of soccer is enormous, yet it has such simple and humble beginnings.

You might be wondering what happened to “extemporaneous”. We are too; this is just the way the ideas came out on the first pass. Since it doesn’t sound extemporaneous, we’d sit back and decide if it’s a better option to make it sound more like conversation.

Of course, our audience would have a lot to do with that decision. If we were being asked to present at the Olympics, for example, you can bet we’d want our writing to be as eloquent as possible. But if our audience were a group of kids who we wanted to pick up the game of soccer, we’d make major changes to the tone like this:

Example:

I’m sure you all know a thing or two about the game of soccer. But did you know that hundreds of millions, if not BILLIONS of people play the game? It’s the most popular game in the world. People play it everywhere, no matter whether they’re rich or poor, in every country on the PLANET. And the crazy thing is that the gigantic sport starts with just a simple soccer ball, like this one. (Holds ball as “prop”)

As you can see, there’s a major tone difference. The situation and the audience, and the style you want to use, will impact your words.

 

Speaking Styles

As you’re writing your presentation, in addition to considering your audience, ask yourself what kind of style you want to use for your situation.

Styles can vary widely in speaking, and that’s great. Variety makes the world go round. Just be clear about what you want yours to be.

Here are some examples of styles:

Technical: Uses a lot of details

Benefits: Can amaze the audience.  May also be easier for a speaker because it’s a lot easier to recite facts than it is to inspire people.

Risk: Can bore or confuse the audience if there is too much data. May not be much fun for the speaker.

Motivational or Inspirational

Benefits: Can have a great impact on the audience when presented effectively. May also be a fun style of speaking with more “meaning” than just recounting numbers or ideas.

Risk: Can be more disappointing if the audience doesn’t accept the motivation.  You need to make sure the setting and audience are appropriate for the message.  This style can also come across as “preachy”.

Humorous

Benefits: Can be a highly useful tool to engage an audience, to break tension, to make the presentation memorable and fun, to get points across, and can be easier on the speaker than a boring or stressful speech.

Risks: A joke falling flat can be very awkward, which can stall the speaker’s momentum and confidence. Also needs to be the appropriate situation for jokes! Audience receptiveness must be considered carefully.

The Expert: Presents him or herself as THE authority on the subject

Benefits: An audience will often respond to an “expert” on a subject much more than someone who doesn’t seem to be an expert. Depending on the situation, this can help goals get fulfilled.

Risks: An audience can be turned off by someone who seems cocky or arrogant, so it’s important to strike the right balance. Someone who also portrays themselves as an expert but exhibits a lack of expertise in the subject will quickly lose the trust and attention of an audience. Also, it’s important to consider the audience when coming off like the authority on the subject.

The Friend: Presents him or herself as one of the group they are speaking to, often using an extemporaneous, casual approach

Benefits: Limited to the situation. For instance if you are part of a team at work and delivering to those coworkers, this style can help you get a point across because you actually do know what they’re going through on a day-to-day basis.  If you have a friendly relationship with clients, or are speaking to peers in an educational environment, this style may work very well, too.

Risks: Can lose the audience quickly if the person they are there to listen to doesn’t seem to know any better than they do or if they don’t command some level of respect. Also may not ever achieve the results of other styles such as the motivational or expert style.

The Asker: Pleads with an audience for a response, such as a charity event, a plea for clemency from a court, or out of deep respect for the audience.

Benefits: Can be effective, but ONLY if the situation calls for it, and even then needs to be used very carefully and in limited doses.

Risk: Abundant. If used at the wrong time, for the wrong audience, or too much, can totally turn off an audience.

The Angry Presenter: Gives the audience an earful of negative words, opinions, and energy

Benefit: Extremely situation-dependent. Can be a last resort in certain instances, or be the only appropriate method of communication. Can get the desired results better than any other style, but again only if the situation calls for it.

Risk: Abundant. High risk of turning off the audience, or even offending them.

The Entertainer: Loves attention and putting on a show. They may say unexpected, even shocking things to get a reaction and take risks to get attention. Their goal is being noticed more than getting a point across

Benefits: If they’re entertaining it’s possible that they’ll get what they want, and the event will be somewhat memorable and productive.

Risks: If they aren’t entertaining, can be a major bust.

 

These are just some examples since there’s an endless variety of styles in the world. Of course, it’s common for a variety of styles to be included in the same  presentation. This may be a good idea, as long as the styles work together. For example, using jokes during a technical presentation to keep the audience engaged. 

Which one is best? You’ll have to figure that out based on who you are, what you feel comfortable doing and what the audience and/or situation call for.

As you continue writing, keep in mind the style you want to use. Your words will impact the tone of your presentation, and should fit your desired style.

Let’s go back to Lincoln for example. If he were considering these styles he would probably have wanted to be perceived as a motivator (to affect broad change as President), and as an expert (with his ideas).  Did his words match his goal? Let’s look again.

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”

It’s safe to say he was an “expert” on writing style alone, and his words to this day still inspire people. Therefore, it’s clear that his words matched his style goals.

Just out of curiosity, what if Lincoln had been looking to use one of the other styles of presenting? What could he have said differently? Perhaps:

Angry style: Have you morons forgotten the principles that our nation was founded on?

The Asker: Please don’t forget why our nation was founded four score and seven years ago. Please try to remember the principles our fathers used. Doesn’t it bother you that people seem to be forgetting that?

The Friend: My friends, let’s not forget what our founding fathers did for us to create a great nation that we could all live in together. They had our liberty in mind, which I know is important to you since I know you so well.

Humorous: Ah, forget that one.

 

Your presentation coming together

How are you doing? By now you should have a decent amount of content written. Keep it going until you have a rough draft, then we’ll discuss editing it shortly.

It’s important for you to determine the ideal length of your presentation. A full page of single spaced text will run 1-2 minutes or even longer depending on how fast you speak. The best tempo is up to you and your situation and audience, but for a rough idea a couple of minutes per page.

Keep up the process of creating a paragraph at a time with an idea, some supporting information, and a concluding sentence. Each paragraph should build on the one before it, or at least a relevant idea from it. It’s important that there’s a logical development of your ideas, that they tie together and flow, in order to keep the audience engaged.

Example:

Opening paragraph:

Soccer is a human phenomenon. Played by hundreds of millions, if not billions of people, this mere “game” has transcended economic and social boundaries, galvanized patriotism, crossed oceans, and is now played on almost every nation on Planet Earth. The sport of soccer is enormous, yet it has such simple and humble beginnings.

Next:

The game of soccer starts with a simple ball just 27 inches in circumference and weighing roughly 15 ounces. It can be purchased at a sporting goods store for about $20. Or, in some instances when the money or option to buy a ball doesn’t exist, anything about that size or shape that rolls and can be kicked can be substituted, as is the case for many poor children around the world – but that doesn’t dampen their enthusiasm for the game.

As you can see, we’re continuing to build off the main concept, and we’re doing so by introducing facts and more information.

Please continue to write your presentation and then come back here.

As you come to the conclusion of your presentation, read back through it and decide what you feel is the most important aspect of the entire presentation. This will help you determine what should be said in the end to leave the last impression.

Here’s how ours is coming along:

Soccer is a human phenomenon. Played by hundreds of millions, if not billions of people, this mere “game” has transcended economic and social boundaries, galvanized patriotism, crossed oceans, and is now played on almost every nation on Planet Earth. The sport of soccer is enormous, yet it has such simple and humble beginnings.

The game of soccer starts with a simple ball just 27 inches in circumference,  weighing roughly 15 ounces. It can be purchased at a sporting goods store for about $20. Since the average game of soccer has 22 players, that’s less than one dollar each, and the ball is reusable. It therefore costs almost nothing to play. In some instances when the money or option to buy a ball doesn’t exist, anything about that size or shape that rolls and can be kicked can be substituted, as is the case for many poor children around the world – but that doesn’t dampen their enthusiasm for the game.

The game of soccer doesn’t take much to play, but it sure does matter to a whole lot of people.  (Note: This obviously isn’t a paragraph. It’s an emphasis statement that stands on its own for impact.)

Consider the World Cup. This mammoth soccer tournament is held every four years and captures the attention of nations across the globe. In fact, 204 nations will be competing over the three years leading up to the tournament for just 32 tournament spots!

The last time the tournament was played, an estimated seven hundred MILLION people watched on televisions and three million more in person in stadiums! The next time it is played in 2014 perhaps over a billion people will witness it.

How is it that something so small – a soccer ball – ends up capturing the attention of the world?

Perhaps the beauty of the sport and what mesmerizes us is both the commonality of the game – people from all across the  planet coming together to share something in a common bond – and the hope associated with it: any young child can kick a ball for the first time on the streets of any nation on earth, and one day end up on the world’s stage competing for the biggest honor of all.

What’s also fascinating about the World Cup is how people of each nation demonstrate tremendous pride in their country and nationality. When a team plays, their nation often comes to a virtual standstill to watch. Stores close, schools take a holiday, and the citizens of that nation unite to cheer on their team with unmitigated zeal. People clench fists, their blood pressure rises, their adrenaline pumps; young and old alike wish they could take the field.

The economic impact of the World Cup is also astonishing as well. It’s hard to gauge the actual  revenue generated but we do know that the tournament itself pays out about $77 million in U.S. dollars, making it one of the richest sports events in the world, and that the likely dollar impact is in the billions.

 

Editing your presentation

How did you do? Hopefully you have most of your presentation written by now. It’s time to edit it before we conclude it.

To do this, just read it aloud. It’s funny how quickly we can pick up on things that need to be modified by using this method.

Also, try letting someone else read it. Be careful, though, as sometimes people don’t feel the same as we do about a subject so they may not understand how it’s going to come across.

For example, if you’re going to speak about stem cell research and your spouse flunked biology and hates science, don’t be too alarmed if they don’t get it. At the same time, be open to helpful commentary and be on the lookout for valid suggestions.

A word of warning about re-writes: It’s easy to get compulsive and rewrite the same thing 146 times. Try to be reasonable about your rewrites. If it sounds great when you read it out loud, gets your point across, you feel strongly about it, and you’re generally satisfied with it, don’t drive yourself crazy with micro-edits.

Another helpful technique is to leave it alone if you get stuck and come back to it later. For example, sleep on it if you have time. You’ll be amazed by how much clearer your mind is in the morning.

Lastly and conversely, when you’re on a roll, stay on a roll. If you’re making progress, don’t stop unless you have to. Coming back to a writing project later on can sometimes kill your momentum.

 

Concluding your presentation

Hopefully by now you have a well edited presentation. You might have already concluded it, but we’ll discuss it in case you didn’t or need some verification that you did it well.

As we mentioned earlier, the conclusion should leave a lasting impression on the audience by completing the process you set out to accomplish.

You should also consider whether you want to thank the audience again for the opportunity to speak, and any other acknowledgements that might be appropriate to close the presentation.

Go back to your initial goals. Re-read your presentation. Did you clearly get the point across? If so, you are probably wise to only say something short and conclusive as opposed to making the same statement again.  Doing so might seem “over the top”.  

If you feel your specific point needs more emphasis, you can conclude with it again in your last paragraph.

 

Here’s our example again. We would have given you more body of the presentation, but to save time we’ll use what we had so far and conclude it.

Example: In a world often scarred by struggles and war, it’s beautiful to see something apparently so simple become something so important to so many.  I see soccer as a metaphor for a better stage for world competition. Instead of wars, all battles should be fought in this way, on the pitch, with no one dying and both sides showing each other respect in the end. Instead of harmful nationalism that sometimes ends in genocide, people should “fight” for their nation by cheering for their soccer team. In human existence, there is nothing so powerful as a young child finding opportunity to grow into responsible adulthood and affecting positive change on a global scale.  Soccer is a surprising venue for such a phenomenon. I’d like to thank you for the opportunity to share my views with you. I appreciate it, and I sincerely hope you learned something valuable and new about soccer!

By the way, we selected soccer randomly. We didn’t know much about it when we started. We even thought of switching it for something with which we’re more familiar, but to test our process we stuck with it. We’re glad we did because we meant what we wrote. We discovered important things to us while researching soccer and thinking about the World Cup. Hopefully that comes across in the words and ideas we chose.

As you complete the writing of your presentation and get ready to move on to the next section where we talk about how to give a presentation, we hope you found something in your quest that means a lot to you as well.